Newsletter | Vol 14 - October 2021

Focus on Data[Permalink]

Technical data can be expensive and difficult to obtain--collecting it, organizing it, analyzing it. Any time you have something someone else doesn't have, you need to retain that advantage and put it to work.

AH-64 Apache in flight

Photo source: Nicky Boogaard from Hardinxveld-Giessendam, Netherlands, via Wikimedia Commons.

Cryogenic and Low Temperatures Database (CLTD)[Permalink]

Questions from CINDAS customers about our newest database, the Cryogenic and Low Temperatures Database (CLTD):

Q: How was the data chosen for the CLTD?
A: Because we continually add data to our products, we began with our CINDAS data, consolidating all of the cryogenic and low temperature data from all of our products into a single database. We then added the NIST and LNG data to it. We continue to add information from other sources. We find, however, that much of the data in the other references is actually data taken from the Thermophysical Properties of Matter Datebase's precursor, the TPRC-Data Series by Touloukian at Purdue University. It takes a lot of time to cross-check these references.

Q: What other data will be added?
A: We have found a multitude of data sources from which we will be extracting data to add to the CLTD. It is a stand-alone product which contains data on a wide variety of materials, not just alloys.

Q: What is the temperature range for data in the CLTD?
A: We include data in both the cryogenic range (0K to 120K) and the low temperature range (120K to 273K).

Q: What markets does CINDAS find are best served by the CLTD?
A: Operating at cryogenic temperatures is essential to many processes in fields of science and engineering including space exploration, aerospace, electronics, refrigeration, and medicine.

Q: How does the CLTD differ from the ASMD or AHAD?
A: The ASMD and AHAD consist of chapters on specific alloys written in a standard format. Some of the properties of the alloy in particular may have cryogenic and low temperature data but it is within all of the other properties data of that alloy. We have kept all of that data in the ASMD/AHAD, but if there was cryogenic or low temperature data, we included that in the CLTD.

Q: Is the main advantage of the CLTD the ability to find cryogenic data faster than searching the other CINDAS databases?
A: While there is a distinct advantage to finding cryogenic data quickly with the CLTD, there is also data included that is not found in other CINDAS databases.

Q: Can you give me a specific example of a particular alloy?
A: For example, Al 7050 has data in the low temperature range beginning at -65 F: Area Reduction vs. T, Elongation % vs T, Fracture Toughness vs. T and both Ultimate and Yield Tensile Strength vs. T, but there is nothing in the cryogenic range. That alloy is in the AHAD, but you would have to search all the properties to find the low temperature (or cryogenic) range data. We have done that already, by consolidating all of the data in those temperature ranges into a single product.

Q: So you are saying that some of the alloys in the AHAD will have cryogenic data, but it is scattered within the chapter and there is more data and better organized/accessible data in the CLTD?
A: Yes, that is exactly what I?m saying. Some of the alloys have cryogenic data among all the other data but the user would have to search all of the property/independent variable combination to find them. In the example of Al 7050, there are 66 property/independent variable combinations, but only five of them have data in the low temperature range (-65 F to 32 F). In addition, the CLTD has over 2000 materials, while the AHAD has only around 280.

To learn more, the following link to a PowerPoint presentation regarding the CLTD provides more information on the 54 material groups in the database:

To see the demo version of the database, click here.

If you are interested in learning more about this product, please contact us.

Possible Browser Connectivity Issues[Permalink]

With the upcoming official end of Internet Explorer on 15 June 2022 (announced earlier this year by Microsoft), and its formal replacement (Microsoft Edge), we wanted to make our customers aware of possible issues in accessing our databases from Edge and other browsers.

To date, we've only heard of connectivity issues for those few customers using referring URLs. The majority of our customers access the databases through IP addresses/ranges.

If you are currently using Internet Explorer, we suggest that you test your access to our products using other browsers (Edge, Chrome, Firefox, Safari, etc.) to make sure you have access. If you encounter issues, please contact us at

We also offer training sessions for new employees and customers. See the article in this issue on Training Resources.

What's New: Product Updates[Permalink]

September 2021 - ASMD/AHAD - Al 2198 added to ASMD and AHAD

Al 2198 is a third generation Al-Cu-Li alloy developed for aerospace applications. At the 1% Li alloy addition, it offers as much as a 3% density reduction and a 6% increase in elastic modulus over conventional high strength Al-Cu alloys not containing lithium. It is currently used for the fuselage of the Airbus A350XWB and the reusable second stage of the Space X Falcon 9 rocket as well as other applications.

August 2021 - TPMD - 42 New Materials Added to TPMD

The TPMD has been updated with the addition of 42 new materials, including 24 properties. The new materials include nanoparticle composites, thermal barrier coatings, ceramics, aluminum alloys, and beryllium-aluminum alloys. Some of the aluminum alloys were already in the TPMD, but new thermal properties have been added. An additional 20 aluminum alloys are new in the TPMD.

To see all the updates to our databases, click here:

New Applications for Additive Manufactured Parts and Components[Permalink]

AML3D, Edinburgh, Australia, has developed and qualified the world's largest AM (additive manufactured) deck mounted chock fitting. Traditionally manufactured by casting, Panama Chocks are large shipboard fittings welded to the ship and used for towing and mooring. This component weighs 3,196 lbs (1,450 kg). The component was manufactured using Wire Arc Manufacturing technology, a form of Directed Energy Deposition (DED). ER70S-6 wire feed stock (mild carbon steel welding wire that contains higher levels of manganese and silicon), combined with AML3D's WAM process, resulted in a material yield strength twice that of the original cast component. See photograph of deck mounted Panama Chock.

Panama Chock
Photo source:

Global engineering technologies company, Renishaw, has used additive manufacturing to produce an innovative new bike (HB.T track bike) for the Great Britain Cycling Team that contributed to 7 gold medals at the Tokyo Olympics. Lotus Engineering designers collaborated with cycling component manufacturer Hope Technology to build the HB.T. Renishaw used its own RenAM 500 AM systems to manufacture aluminum and titanium components. The bike weighs 16.5 lbs (7.5 kg) and has AM titanium and aluminum components in the frame, fork, handlebar and stem. These AM parts are integrated with carbon fiber to make up the majority of the bicycle. See the photograph below of the Hope HB.T track bike.

Hope Track Bike
Photo source:

CINDAS LLC has chapters in the AHAD for the two most widely used additive manufactured alloys: AlSi10Mg and Ti-6Al-4V. The AlSi10Mg chapter has 230 tables, figures and micrographs from 96 references. The Ti-6Al-4V has 200 tables, figures, and micrographs from 112 references.

Case Study: QuesTek's Ferrium C64 & AM Process Make Army Helicopters Tougher, Lighter, and Safer[Permalink]

We are often asked for case studies of aerospace applications of the alloys in our databases. The following is an very interesting case study that recently appeared as a News Release by QuesTek Innovations of Evanston, Illinois. It involves both a new alloy developed by QuesTek and the growing process of Additive Manufacturing (AM). If you are a subscriber to CINDAS, you can access this particular alloy (Ferrium C64) along with the other Ferrium alloys we have in our databases (Ferium S53, C61 and M54). You can also access chapters on AlSi10Mg (AM) and Ti-6Al-4V (AM) that are written from an additive manufacturing standpoint. These two AM chapters will also give you a nice refresher on AM processes used.

The U.S. Army needed to enhance the performance and safety of its helicopters, but the steels they were currently utilizing could not fulfill this goal. The Army sought the development of new rotorcraft gear materials possessing a combination of increased bending and contact fatigue resistance, enhanced core strength with good toughness, higher temperature resistance, and excellent hardenability.

The Army's main pain point was that the lead time for manufacturing gears for testing in Science and Technology (S&T;) prototype demonstrators could sometimes take 18 months and required costly, special tooling. Thus, the Army needed a way to develop a new or improved AM process for prototyping aerospace gears.

QuesTek engineered Ferrium® C64®, a novel high-performance gear steel that provides a combination of high core-strength, toughness, surface hardenability, improved processability (cost and time reduction), and temperature resistance.

Ferrium C64 steel was originally developed under Department of Defense funding and first utilized by the Navy. In 2015, under the Future Advanced Rotorcraft Drive Systems (FARDS) program, the Army contracted with Bell Helicopter and Sikorsky (now Lockheed Martin) to develop their respective next generation gearbox technologies and achieve Future Vertical Lift performance targets.

The outcomes of Ferrium C64 applications are numerous:

  • With existing steels, the Army's rotorcraft platforms did not meet the requisite 30-minute oil-out operational duration. However, the Ferrium C64 components lasted through 85 minutes of testing without any signs of failure, successfully demonstrating that the gearbox could exceed the 30-minute loss of lubrication requirement.
  • Ferrium C64 enabled an up-to 25% increase in power density over incumbent materials.
  • Ferrium C64 enables gearbox designs to become lighter, operate at higher temperatures, and increase safety margins compared to gearboxes manufactured from traditional steels.
  • Ferrium C64 is being successfully demonstrated as the best-performing gear material available for additive manufacture of gears for aerospace, high performance racing and industrial applications for prototyping and replacement of small legacy gears.

About QuesTek Innovations LLC
QuesTek Innovations LLC is a global leader in ICME technologies and has used its proprietary Materials by Design® methodology to rapidly design and deploy a family of commercially-available Ferrium® steels being used in demanding applications. For over 20 years, QuesTek has been selected by all branches of the US government and a growing and diverse industrial client base to understand and resolve their most pressing materials challenges.

Click below to read more:

Training Resources Available[Permalink]

Under our link (LEARN) on our webpage:, you can find everything you need to know about how to use the CINDAS LLC databases and on-line handbooks.

Please check out:
This PowerPoint presentation on the databases was recently updated.


Please review the CINDAS instructional video demonstration of a live training session on the new CINDAS LEARN link:

If you need additional site training, contact us to schedule a phone conference or a webinar:

Purdue Aerospace District Update[Permalink]

Aerospace engine manufacturing giant Rolls-Royce will expand its already large footprint at Purdue, thanks to a new commitment among the university, the Purdue Research Foundation and the company. Read more

A first-of-its-kind in the U.S. facility to test hypersonic technologies will be constructed in the Purdue Aerospace District adjacent to the Purdue University campus, already a hotbed for hypersonics research and aerospace technology developments. Read more

The dean of the College of Engineering at Purdue University says the newly-announced Hypersonic Ground Test Center at the Purdue Aerospace District will "create jobs and knowledge together" in the area of hypersonics. The facility will be operated by an independent, nonprofit consortium of industry members and hosted by Purdue. Dean Mung Chiang, who also serves as executive vice president of Purdue, says combining the facility with Purdue's own $41 million Hypersonic Applied Research Facility and Rolls-Royce's recently-announced test center will make the university the epicenter of hypersonics research. Read more

SAAB's West Lafayette facility celebrated its grand opening on October 13. The multimillion-dollar facility, located in the Discovery Park District adjacent to the Purdue campus, supports production of the U.S. Air Force's next-generation T-7A jet trainer. When at full capacity by 2027, Saab will employ over 300 people in the West Lafayette facility. Read more

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Technical data can be expensive and difficult to obtain--collecting it, organizing it, analyzing it. Any time you have something someone else doesn't have, you need to retain that advantage and put it to work.

Our newsletters include informative updates on CINDAS LLC as well as news from the materials world.